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A Timeline of US-Cuba Relations
According to the recent developments, the United States and Cuba restored their diplomatic relations in 2015, which were served during the Cold War of 1961. However, the US government still wishes to remain anonymous with Cuba, making it illegal for them to do business with Cuba.
The early relations with Cuba and the US were mainly focused on trade, and in the 19th century, manifest destiny led America to buy, take control and conquer some of Cuba. This led to a secret attempt to buy essentials of Cuba from Spain in 1848 called Ostend Manifesto, which backfired and weakened Pierce’s presidency in the country.
From 1898 to 1902, Cuba became a US protectorate and gained political and economic dominance over the island, which persisted even after Cuba became independent in 1902.
After the Cuban Revolution in 1959, nearly $1.7 billion of US oil assets were seized in Cuba, which led the US to tighten its restrictions and bans against the Cuban government.
US-Cuba relations post the Cuban Revolution.
While the disputes with Cuba continued, the US government served diplomatic ties with the island country and also attempted to use exiles to invade the country in 1961. The US also engaged in a terrorist campaign to bring down the Cuban government in the same year.
However, after 2014, during the presidentship of Barak Obama and Rul Castro, they began normalizing their relations, which was popularly called ‘The Cuban Thaw.’
However, during the Trump administration, the rules became stringent when Trump announced new travel and other restrictions, worsening US-Cuba relationships. Since 2021, the Biden administration has been labeled tougher than Trump with the Cuban island.
The Trade Sanctions Reform and Enhancement Act of 2000 allows exports from the US to Cuba in several medical and food industries, with proper licensing and permissions from the dedicated departments and councils. Since the Obama administration eased specific travel restrictions from the US to Cuba, it led to discuss bilateral relations. As part of the Cuban Thaw, the country further loosened the travel and other import restrictions after 2015.
Although academic relations have fluctuated between the two countries, like other relations, they have been limited since 1959. In 1961, the normal flow of intellectual exchanges was stopped, and then it was only after the 1970s that the government thought of increasing the relations with respect to academic ties.
Instead, the emphasis was drawn to cultural and literary history by opening Cuban universities in America and vice versa. The Torricelli Law, set up in 1992, also facilitated the relaxation of intellectual cooperation between the two counties. However, as the presidents of the United States kept changing, the laws were relaxed and imposed based on the person in power.
How Does Democracy Work in Cuba?
The elections process decides the government body which rules the island for a brief time.
Elections in Cuba are held at the provincial, municipal and national levels. Cuba has only one state in the party. The Communist Party of Cuba is called the superior driving force of society and the state. This has also been mentioned in the Cuban constitution, and any party other than this is considered illegal. Since the government does not promote free and fair voting, the elections in Cuba are not regarded as democratic.
Procedure of elections
As stated in the constitution, Cuba is a socialist republic, which means all the members of the bodies are elected and are subjected to recall the masses of the state agencies. Elections in Cuba are held in two phases:
- Elections of the delegates from the Municipal Assemble
- Election of the deputies in the National Assembly
The local population nominates the candidate SFP and the municipal assemblies at the local levels. And for the national assembly, the candidates are nominated by the members of the municipal assemblies by referring to a list compiled by the municipal and federal candidacy commissions.
Although the provincial assemblies were abolished in 2019, the provincial governors still hold their office, which is decided by the president of Cuba, with no provincial election.
The voters nominate elections of the municipal assembly delegates in the nomination assemblies by posting their candidate biographies. Then, a process called the secret ballot is followed for voting. Finally, these deputies are elected for a term of 5 years.
Before the voting, nomination assemblies are held a month before the elections within the electoral district.
Cuba’s National Assembly of People’s Party has 605 members who serve a term of 5 years. As mentioned above, the candidates of this assembly are chosen by the candidacy commissions, which are composed of mass organizations representing youth, farmers, women, students, and others. Although only one candidature per seat is permitted, 50% of the votes ought to be elected. If a candidate fails to achieve at least 50% votes, a new candidate is selected for the position, and the procedure is repeated.
Rights of the legislative proposals
The Cuban constitution, adopted in 1976, provides rights for the citizens to propose laws, but the prerequisite is that the proposal should be backed by 10,000 citizens who are eligible to vote. For instance, in 2002, a movement was formed known as the Varela Project, which submitted nearly 11,000 signatures for national reform on the economic and political reforms of the island.
The government considered the petition and proposed a counter initiative which was later backed by 8.1 million signatures. Millions of Cubans also took to the street in support of the decision.
An overview of the Economy of Cuba
The economic structure of Cuba follows a mixed pattern, most of which is funded and dominated by state-up enterprises. On the other hand, the state government employs almost all the labor forces necessary to raise the country’s economic state and get over its financial crisis.
Different sectors owing to economic development
The economy of Cuba is funded and governed by different sectors of the government and private corporations. Some of them are mentioned below:
As of 2011, nearly 96% of the entire island’s electricity was produced from fossil fuels. The modernized method of energy production with solar panels was introduced only in some rural areas and for emergencies like blackouts, burn-outs, etc. Most of the citizens were also encouraged to switch from inefficient lamps to modern models, reducing electricity consumption.
According to 2007 reports, Cuba produced 16.89 billion kWh of electricity, of which only 13.93 billion kWh was consumed, without imports and exports. Since they do not depend on revenue from imports and exports, the profit from energy production is minimal in Cuba.
The Energy Revolution program of Cuba was started and executed in 2006, which focused on developing a socioeconomic status using diverse energy resources. However, since Cuba lacks the efficient resources to generate Cuba’s power production, they plan on taking help from the United States. Furthermore, the outdated energy grid, which is often affected and damaged by hurricanes, often causes an energy crisis on the island.
Most of the import and export of goods in Cuba happens through agriculture. It is one of the largest producers of Sugar and tobacco. In addition, it also produces citrus, potatoes, livestock, beans, and coffee. According to reports from 2015, nearly 80% of the food and other food products were exported to different countries, which remain one of the leading sources of their revenue.
Nearly 37% of the Cuban GDP is through industrial production. A rally in 2009, based on the sugar production and processing industry, stimulated its investment and produced a larger market for sugar cultivation and processing. Since 2003, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries have also started gaining immense importance. Over the years, they have also sold vaccines against bacterial and viral pathogens and exported them to different regions of the world. Along with developing drugs in cancer treatment, Cuba has created a drug called Herberprot-P, which is famous as a cure for diabetic foot ulcers in many developing counties.
In the mid-1990s, the tourism industry surpassed the revenues generated by the sugar industry and became a mainstream development of the Cuban economy. It was also considered the primary source of foreign exchange. Over the years, the tourism industry has only grown, and today, it is also one of the primary industries for generating the economy on the island.
Damages caused by Hurricane Ian
The powerful Hurricane Ian hit Cuba with a wind speed of over 200 kmph and caused extensive damage in the region. When the electrical installation got destroyed, the authorities turned off the power to avoid any electrocution and massive damage to any properties. The country saved about 3,800 people in the western region because of the timely evacuation. Still, Hurricane Ian has left numerous dead, destroyed homes, and resulted in severe flooding.
Even before the hurricane hit the country, it was predicted that even if you were not located or came in the path of the eye of the storm, it would damage properties and lives in other regions as well.
The governor asked the citizens to stock adequate food, medicine, and fuel and also took the help of about 7,000 national guards.
Most affected regions
The category four powerful hurricane mainly hit Pinar del Rio and the region of Artemisa. About 11 municipalities of the area were severely affected by the storm in Pinar del Rio region, while three were involved in the Artemisa region. In the 14 municipalities that were worst affected by the hurricane, there were about 713,732 people. Of these people, 352,542 were women, about 144,444 were children and adolescents, and about 155000 were people over 60. In addition, in these municipalities, there were about 3 400 pregnant women, about 800 HIV patients, and 30,500 people with disabilities.
Since these areas were the worst hit by the hurricane, the plan of action was mainly focused on these regions.
The entire Island has to face a power blackout.
The Island of Cuba was constantly threatened with frequent blackouts that frustrated the civilians. But Hurricane Ian was the last straw of Cuba’s outdated and ailing electricity grid system. Even though power blackouts were widespread in the island country, the storm resulted in the power system’s collapse and put more than 11 million people in the country in darkness.
What were the major damages?
The powerful storm caused massive damage. Along with creating enormous havoc in the country’s urban spaces, they also destroyed the livelihood of many people in the rural municipalities.
Based on primary assessment, it is found that the damages include:
- Housing damages.
- Destruction of health and educational infrastructure.
- Difficulty in accessing clean drinking water and electricity.
Additionally, enormous damage has been reported to the food storage and production facilities. Thousands of hectares of crops, livestock production, fishing, and agriculture which were the primary source of the livelihood of people in the affected municipalities, were destroyed by the killer storm.
What made the situation worse was that Hurricane Ian hit Cuba when the country was going through a major economic crisis caused by COVID-19.
National and local authorities are trying their best to handle the situation. But, due to the large scale of the disaster and the severe damages caused by the hurricane, the country will require support from other sources.
How does Cuba respond to dissent?
In the wake of the protest in July 2021, the Cuban government arrested thousands of protesters. From this protest, more than 700 protesters were imprisoned till the end of the year. The authorities curbed their freedom of expression and began to monitor human rights activists, artists, and journalists. Many of these people were put under house arrest and subjected to detention and ill-treatment. Along with this, the authoritarian Cuban government disrupted the internet. The island country’s economic condition worsened, and US authorities again failed to lift the restriction and ban on various economic and commercial activities.
Repressing the dissent
If you are wondering how Cuban authorities respond to dissent and disagreement, you should look at the peaceful protest that happened on July 11, 2021. Many people took to the streets of many towns and cities due to the Cuban authorities’ failure to address the economy’s weak state, the shortage of medicine, food, and other necessities, and the government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The protesters also voiced their concerns over controlling the rights of freedom of expression and assembly. However, the largest demonstration that Cuba saw was the people’s cry to end the government’s authoritarian rule.
In response to this protest, the authority of Cuba imprisoned thousands of protesters. The authorities also took harsh steps against activists and journalists. They were either put under house arrest or forced into arbitrary detention. What is worse is that all these happen by disrupting the internet. In addition, most of the protesters arrested were charged with criminal charges to silence the rebellion.
After the protests, the arrested people were put under house arrest delaying their trial. The Cuban authorities also subjected these people to physical surveillance by appointing security to inform them about their houses permanently. They were also threatened with arrest if they left the place, thus forcing them into arbitrary detention. The relatives of people who were detained were also subjected to many violations.
This mass detention resulted in the reporting of ill-treatment, including crimes against women. Many authorities misbehaved and harassed women. Moreover, they denied the allegation of human right violation.
The authorities subjected absolute control over the media and allowed to broadcast only selected footage. Moreover, during the protest, people in power disrupted the internet and blocked apps like WhatsApp and Telegram.
Economic and cultural rights
The economic condition of Cuba has continued to deteriorate over the years. With a significant shortage of food, medicine, and other necessities, the situation of this Island nation is devastating that even the Inter-American Commission on Human rights expressed their concerns, especially on the situation of Cuba after the COVID pandemic. Moreover, throughout the years, there have been many electricity outages.
During various times of the year, hospitals were also reported to be overwhelmed with patients.
But the unfortunate situation is that the authorities blame the economic embargo for the shortage of food and other necessities.
The Impact of COVID-19 on Poverty in Cuba
Cuba has experienced many setbacks in the last few years, mainly due to the devastating earthquake in 2020, along with the rampant spread of the COVID-19 virus. The country is still trying to get back on its feet again, with many people finding it difficult to meet their basic needs. In this article, we will explore the impact of COVID-19 on poverty in Cuba.
When COVID-19 started spreading in Cuba, restrictions were quickly placed. The schools were closed, and classes were held online. However, many students in Cuba come from low-income families, and they don’t have easy access to the Internet.
It also suffered from a shortage of beds. However, what sets Cuba apart from the other nations in the world is that it has an incredibly high ratio of doctors to the population. The doctors displayed great tenacity and strength in tracking and attempting to isolate the virus.
They also conducted detailed medical research and developed vaccines like Abdala and Soberena-2. Unfortunately, the Cuban infrastructure was not on their side and is still in need of great attention.
Hurricanes Exacerbated the Crisis
The fight in Cuba was not just against COVID-19 but also the rise in poverty. People were suffering in many ways, and there was a lack of impetus to follow the pandemic rules. More than the COVID-19 crisis itself, many Cubans feared hurricanes.
The Cuban region is well known for experiencing many hurricanes. It has always left them with a devastating aftermath, where people no longer had homes and had to find shelters to feel safe and warm. Although Cubans are generally resilient and have a history of facing hurricanes with great courage, it became twice as challenging this time.
Cuba is known for its strong commitment to meeting the goals of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals. However, the problem is that it relies heavily on food imports to provide for poor children in schools.
Cuban Foreign Minister Speaks at UN General Assembly
Recently, the Cuban Foreign Minister spoke at the UN General Assembly and went into the current issues that the world is collectively facing. He expressed the sentiment that the COVID-19 pandemic merely revealed the nature of the unjust order currently prevailing among the nations and criticized the overemphasis laid on military expenditure.
He also expressed distaste for Cuba’s false image of having sponsored terrorism. On the contrary, he asserted that Cuba had been a victim of terrorism. He pointed out Cuba’s commitment and strength in fighting the COVID-19 virus and how Cuba provided medical brigades to many countries around the world, despite its own troubles.
Tourism Industry is Showing Hope
Fortunately, the situation is looking much better now. Cuba has always received tourists from different parts of the world for its exotic culture, culture, and music. The tourist industry is thriving again, with the Cuban Government allowing only vaccinated tourists to enter the island. Kids are also going back to school. Hence, there is a promising movement toward normalcy.
A Brief Guide to Double-Ended Dildos
A double-ended dildo basically means double the fun for people who are into or fantasize about double penetration. Irrespective of whether you have a sexual partner, you can consider adding double-ended dildos to your sex-toys collection and letting the sparks fly.
If you are wondering what a double ended dildo is, it is precisely what it sounds like: a dildo shaped like the top of a human penis on both ends of the shaft. It is customarily made up of silicone material, so it is firm and bendable simultaneously. However, using body-friendly metal, glass, or plastic to construct double ended dildos is not unheard of.
The various types of Double Ended Dildos
- The ‘I-shaped’ ones – Usually 16-inches long and straight in design, the I-shaped double-sided dildo is considered an erotic overlord. The shape makes it best suited to satisfy partnered and solo masturbation kinks. Insert one of the ends into your partner’s mouth, anus, or vagina, and then have the other end slide down the hole of your choice. Begin gently thrusting down the shaft length (with your pelvis or head) until both partners meet in the middle. This is one of the best options for pleasure-seekers who prefer shallow penetration and are readily available in any sex toy store.
- The ‘U-shaped ones’- These dildos are curved into a U-shape, as the name suggests. They are specifically designed to allow people to explore double penetration without needing the assistance of a partner. Each side generally features eight to ten insertable inches. The widths of both ends are usually different to accommodate various girth preferences. Like the I-shaped dildos, these are also readily available in any sex toy store such as twicetonight.com.
- The hands-free experience – These double ended dildos are either mechanized or strap-in dildos (click here to see more) or a combination of both. These are the ones I prefer for foreplay with my partner and masturbation, for they provide a hands-free experience. The partner who straps on the dildo to their G-zone experiences pleasure on their clitoris (because of an extended, small shaft that massages the clitoris) while thrusting their partner who experiences the pleasures of penetrative sex.
Popular Double Ended Dildos in the Market
Through this article, I would like to introduce you to some of the extreme and best dildos belonging to the double-ended category that rules the market today. Give them a try if you wish to experience the ultimate climax.
1) Master Cock Double Stuffer Double Pecker – It is the best dildo for you if you like to focus on texture and peripheral feels on your vaginal wall. It has an actual dick-like structure and contour. Its flexible yet less-bendy nature makes it the perfect toy for simultaneous stimulation of the anal cavity and vagina.
2) Icicles No. 57 Double-sided Textured Glass Dildo – A personal favorite! This one is made of glass and is a masterpiece in itself. It can be heated or chilled according to personal preferences. But my favorite part is its insane textures. Makes me squirm every time!
3) Colours DP Pleasures by NS Novelties – The Colours DP Pleasures double dildo is pleasurable in many ways. The perimeter is optimum for most ladies who have had sex before, and the silicone material is squishy and firm. I can easily squeeze the ends together to fit into the vaginal canal. It is the perfect equipment once you get used to angling the dildo properly.
The most pride-friendly sex toys
Double-sided dildos, hands-down, should be tagged as the most pride-friendly design for sex toys. Having had sexual partners from various genders and sexual orientations, I can say with conviction that double ended dildos have satisfied my and my partner’s every desire in bed.
This is how double ended dildos can be used by any combination of partners, no matter their gender or sexual preferences. The ‘I-shaped’ ones can be used by gay couples who wish to be anally penetrated simultaneously and lesbian couples who fancy getting penetrated together or individually. The strap-on ones pleasure the woman thrusting and, needless to say, the woman/man getting drilled.
Cons of the Double-Ended Dildo
- There is a greater risk for infections since there is a chance that each end is inserted into different body parts.
- Controlling them is difficult for beginners because it takes time to get into a rhythm while pegging or experimenting with simultaneous penetration with your partner.
The double ended experience
I have experimented with different kinds of double-ended dildos, and being an experienced masturbator for me, using them was a pleasurable experience. I was skeptical about using it during sex as it was completely different from anything I had tried before with my partner. Still, we soon figured out our rhythm, the intensity of penetration, and the frequency of thrusts we were both comfortable with. We used an I-shaped double-ended dildo to experience simultaneous penetration in our vaginas. We used lubricants to facilitate the process, which I feel is essential while exploring any sex-aiding equipment.
When I engage in solo self-pleasuring, I use the U-shaped double-ended dildo. I use one that has adjustable shaft lengths. I prefer deep penetration that thrusts at my G-spot in the pussy whereas, in the case of my ass, I am more comfortable with shallow penetration. Therefore, adjusting the length of the limb enables me to insert the perfect lengths in each hole. It helps me climax faster.
I have occasionally also pegged my partner using the strap-on dildos. The ones I use have an external shaft that pleasures my clit while I peg my partner in the anal cavity or vagina. It is perfect for experiencing a hands-free orgasm. Some double-ended strap in dildos are also equipped with vibrators for providing maximum pleasure.
Top Economic facts about Cuba
With the restoration of U.S. and Cuban diplomatic relations, there has been a substantial change in the Cuban economy.
Removal of Cuba’s name from the U.S. State sponsors of terrorism list, and the reopening of embassies between the two countries, many changes have happened in the Cuban economy. On the surface, we might think that the Cuban economy has changed completely, but to understand the real situation, we need to understand where people, the market, and the economy have been.
The domestic product per capita has been static for more than three-decade
The growth of Cuba’s domestic per capita income is almost the same as in 1985. During the first part of the 90s, Cuba reduces to more than one-third of its economy. But when Venezuela began to provide petroleum to Cuba at high discounts, there was a spike in the economy. But they again fell with the financial crisis of 2008-09. And after 2009, they didn’t recover much.
Cuban government offers low government wages
Even thorough the estimated gross national per capita income is over $5,500, the salary for the average Cuban is about $20 per month. This said, more than 40 percent of the Cuban labor force belongs to the middle class. But as the government wages are low, consumption remains small.
Only about five percent of Cubans have access to the internet
Owning to the fact that the internet is very expensive in Cuba, only about five percent of Cubans have access to it. Moreover, considering the low average income of Cuban people, they will have to spend more than half their income on Netflix. But demand for telecommunication products and companies like Netflix and Google is rising rapidly, and they are finding ways to enter the Cuban economy.
Many of the people in Florida are migrating to the U.S.
Another feature is the massive migration of Cuban people to the U.A. and claiming green cards. This is evident in the fact that more than two-thirds of the two million Cuban population resides in Florida. And more than 18 percent of people living in Miami identify as Cuban. Today, a visa lottery system enables up to 20,000 Cubans to migrate to the U.S. every year. Also, reports of people trying to cross the border by sea are increasing.
Increase in the dependency ratio
One of the main factors that are hindering the growth of the Cuban economy is the rapid increase in the dependency ratio. Cuba’s population is nearly 11.2 million, which is reducing and rapidly aging. This is a bad situation for economic growth because the growth of any economy will need people who are in the prime of the workforce. Due to this scenario, they are closing their schools instead of opening elderly homes and retirement communities. This factor is making the growth of the Cuban economy challenging.
But if the political leaders can lift the limitation of investments, change the tax codes, and introduce the right incentives, the country has the potential to boom in the future. But without such changes, this island nation will always be stuck in time.
Cuba’s Efforts to Capture the Funds
Cuba declared that government will start buying dollars and other changeable currencies on Thursday at a price that is approximately 5 times the going rate in an attempt to beat the black market and seize the assets. As according to internet-based online news source El Toque tracker, the most witnessed in the communist dictatorship, Central Bank Chairman Marta Wilson Gonzalez stated on government mainstream tv on Wednesday night that the government financial system had established a new rate of 120 pesos to the dollar, especially in comparison to the authoritative fixed rate of about 20 pesos, and 115 pesos on the grey economy.
The very first step
Gonzalez said that most operations in the state-dominated sector would continue to function at the fixed interest rate that had been in place for some more than two years and that the new price would fluctuate and not pertain to them. Cuba decided to ban dollar in 2020 due to U.S. sanctions, and shortly after, it stopped issuing the general populace changeable money for pesos, claiming it was out of money.
Alejandro Gil, the finance minister, stated in an interview with the head of the central bank on Wednesday that he wanted to restart exchange rates soon, but that the initial step was to take control of the black market.
He claimed that a significant amount of international money approaching the nation today escapes the national banking program’s grasp. The relatively close, resource industry increased 1.3% last year following contracting 10.9% in 2020, slammed by tough new U.S. sanctions, the epidemic, and present rising global pricing for products and transportation. Gil stated that the rebound was continuing, albeit slowly, without providing numbers.
Rising protests due to the shortages
The private sector, that frequently gets foreign cash from tourists, and the institutions will now again receive and convert actual dollars at 120, according to Vidal, unlocks a significant primary hurdle that transfers faced when they were costing 24 pesos.
Despite The Flames Being Put Out, Cuba’s Massive Fire Raises Concerns Of Unrest
A succession of enormous blaze blasts that could be witnessed from Havana 75 miles away, a bolt of lightning, and a lasting sulfuric odour. Lightning hit late on Friday, starting a five-day fire at Matanzas’ oil production storage unit. As per Mario Sabines, the town’s administrator, the fires expanded to three additional tanks holding tens of thousands of cubic meters of gasoline over the ensuing weeks “like an Olympic torch.” The inferno wasn’t certainly put out until Tuesday. At that point, it had severely damaged Cuba’s electricity system and resulted in one death and 125 injuries.
The blackouts ensuing
And as the dust settles, there is growing concern that it, along with the ensuing blackouts, may further undermine the “Cuban Revolution,” that is currently undergoing one of the most precarious phases of its 63-year existence. Thousands of Cubans, particularly those living in the remote rural areas, have indeed been enduring hour-long everyday power outages for days. Food spoils rapidly in the August heat, and sleeping is extremely difficult. A 12-hour power failure last July served as the initial catalyst for the enormous protests that followed.
Although the amount of petroleum, gasoline, and heating oil lost in the blaze has yet to be reported by the authorities, Cubans already are preparing for a worsening energy shortage. As Cuba’s South American partner battles to process sufficient petroleum for its own purposes, oil supplies from Venezuela have decreased. It is now more difficult for Cuba to purchase oil on the export business due to the rise in crude prices brought on by the conflict in Ukraine.
Tankers from Venezuela facing sanctions
The majority of the Trump government’s “highest effort” campaign against with the nation continues, notwithstanding Joe Biden’s election-year pledge to undo Trump measures that caused hardship on Cubans and their people. Sanctions continue to be imposed on vessels delivering Venezuelan oil to Cuba. According experts, this makes the island spend more for shipping. The United States provided scientific aid while Venezuela and Mexico dispatched different teams and much more than 100 tonnes of firefighting chemicals.
There are concerns among proponents of the normalisation resumed by President Obama that the Biden administration is “secretly optimistic that the electricity and other difficulties are an exam that ‘the government’ keeps failing,” according to Fulton Armstrong, the most senior consultant on Latin America for the US intelligence agencies.
Well before fire, Jorge Pion, head of the Latin America and Caribbean energy and environment programme at the University of Texas at Austin claimed that his analysis had shown a “complete breakdown” of the area’s electricity system this year.