According to the recent developments, the United States and Cuba restored their diplomatic relations in 2015, which were served during the Cold War of 1961. However, the US government still wishes to remain anonymous with Cuba, making it illegal for them to do business with Cuba.
The early relations with Cuba and the US were mainly focused on trade, and in the 19th century, manifest destiny led America to buy, take control and conquer some of Cuba. This led to a secret attempt to buy essentials of Cuba from Spain in 1848 called Ostend Manifesto, which backfired and weakened Pierce’s presidency in the country.
From 1898 to 1902, Cuba became a US protectorate and gained political and economic dominance over the island, which persisted even after Cuba became independent in 1902.
After the Cuban Revolution in 1959, nearly $1.7 billion of US oil assets were seized in Cuba, which led the US to tighten its restrictions and bans against the Cuban government.
US-Cuba relations post the Cuban Revolution.
While the disputes with Cuba continued, the US government served diplomatic ties with the island country and also attempted to use exiles to invade the country in 1961. The US also engaged in a terrorist campaign to bring down the Cuban government in the same year.
However, after 2014, during the presidentship of Barak Obama and Rul Castro, they began normalizing their relations, which was popularly called ‘The Cuban Thaw.’
However, during the Trump administration, the rules became stringent when Trump announced new travel and other restrictions, worsening US-Cuba relationships. Since 2021, the Biden administration has been labeled tougher than Trump with the Cuban island.
The Trade Sanctions Reform and Enhancement Act of 2000 allows exports from the US to Cuba in several medical and food industries, with proper licensing and permissions from the dedicated departments and councils. Since the Obama administration eased specific travel restrictions from the US to Cuba, it led to discuss bilateral relations. As part of the Cuban Thaw, the country further loosened the travel and other import restrictions after 2015.
Although academic relations have fluctuated between the two countries, like other relations, they have been limited since 1959. In 1961, the normal flow of intellectual exchanges was stopped, and then it was only after the 1970s that the government thought of increasing the relations with respect to academic ties.
Instead, the emphasis was drawn to cultural and literary history by opening Cuban universities in America and vice versa. The Torricelli Law, set up in 1992, also facilitated the relaxation of intellectual cooperation between the two counties. However, as the presidents of the United States kept changing, the laws were relaxed and imposed based on the person in power.